Saturday, February 17, 2007

Cosmic Affair

Since about 30 years, a phenomenon, whose origin is still unknown is causing scientists to rethink and reexamine their theories of physics and astronomy.This is the phenomenon of 'Cosmic rays'. High energy cosmic rays are mainly sub-atomic particles that flow into our solar system from the far reaches of the galaxy. They are mainly protons, electrons, and atomic nuclei which have had all of their surrounding electrons stripped during their near light speed passage through the Galaxy. Cosmic rays provide one of our few direct samples of matter from outside our solar system.

The cosmic rays of high energy are particles coming from somewhere in the universe and produce a great shower of particles (pions, kaons, muons, electrons, neutrinos, photons...) when collision is with the atoms of our atmosphere. While many subatomic particles, or particles that make up atoms, can only penetrate into objects.Out of these which penetrate, a few of them pierce a very small distance into the objects they collide. Neutrinos easily pass through an object as large as Earth. Almost all the neutrinos that reach Earth pass right through the planet. Billions of neutrinos pass through every human body every second. Some physicists think that neutrinos could be high energy cosmic particles. But from where and how do they acquire such energy? Mystery is still open.

Let us start with the dual character of Light.Light behaves as a particle in few occasions and as a wave in other occasions.This dual nature of light was proved slowly over centuries with the help of advanced technology.I would like to quote a beautiful example from Iqbal Ahmad Rashid to make ourselves realise how limited our resources and senses are.He says in an article at , "The fact that in relation to the existing things, the human beings are just like a person imprisoned in a fortress tower which has, except a few peepholes, no outlet at all. He an see through these peep-holes a river’s flowing eastward, mountains towards west, a palace towards north and a play ground towards south. In this parable the prisoner is a human being, the fortress his body and the peepholes his senses. Through the senses, he can see the colors, perceive the smell, taste the eatables, hear the sounds and feel the existence of bodies through touch. It may, however, be asked, “Is it possible to have of everything in the world?” In the parable just mentioned, the prisoner, when he looks through the peepholes cannot see anything except a small section of the river. Similarly, he can see and assimilate only a few of the colors. He cannot see the huge garden existing between the river and the mountain for the walls of the tower have no other peephole through which he could peep through. Is it justified to deny its existence simply because he does not see it. I don’t see an ant moving at a distance of three miles but it is there. There are millions of germs present in the air or in a glass full of clear water but they are invisible to me. I can see neither the atom nor the electrons revolving in its nucleus like planets in the space. Neither can I stare at the sun (for its brightness is dangerous and blinding to my naked and unshielded eye) nor 4,700,000 horsepowers of energy falling in the form of sunshine continually upon every square-mile of the earth’s surface. The sounds that an ant produces are not audible to me for the ear is receptive only to vibrations with a frequency ranging from five to twenty thousand cycles per second. The vibrations with lesser energy are not audible to me and those with bigger energy will deafen me forever."

Now lets get back to our topic after having in mind that our capabilities and resources are too limited.Around 1924, Louise de Broglie found out 'The dual nature of Matter'.He said even matter behaves like a wave and a particle in different conditions. He suggested that there was a wave connected with a moving particle. The length of that wave, as he said, is equal to:

where h is the Planck's constant, p is the momentum of the electron.We can substitute the momentum with the expression m*v, where m is the mass of the particle, v is its velocity. So the expression for the wavelength looks as shown below:

The formula shows that a particle of smaller velocity and smaller mass is characterised by the longer wavelength.This mean that the wave pattern of bodies with smaller momentum (m.v) can be seen while those having large momentum can not be seen with our eyes.The electrons behave exactly as light when they are exited.George Paget Thomson (JJ Thomson's son) conducted a different experiment and also proved the wave structure of the electrons. He was bombarding thin (about 10-5 cm) gold foil by a beam of electrons having high velocity. While the electrons were going through the foil, the diffraction occurred. Thomson observed the diffraction rings on the screen behind the foil.Thus the scientists concluded that even matter has wave pattern.If we look at the formula, the particle must have some velocity to be seen as a wave.If the particle is not moving, moment would be zero and its wavelength would be infinity.

Now we can draw the following inference - Mass can travel in a wave form if supplied with proper momentum.

Now let us see the following verse where ALLAH describes 'Cosmic rays' - "(ALLAH) Rules the cosmic affair from the heavens to the Earth. Then this affair travels to Him in one day, at a measure of one thousand years of what you count." (32:5)

Now lets know some interesting facts about cosmic rays as studied by the scientists.Scientists at NASA divide Cosmic rays into
  • Galactic Cosmic rays - Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) come from outside the solar system but generally from within our Milky Way galaxy. GCRs are atomic nuclei from which all of the surrounding electrons have been stripped away during their high-speed passage through the galaxy. They have probably been accelerated within the last few million years, and have traveled many times across the galaxy, trapped by the galactic magnetic field.GCRs have been accelerated to nearly the speed of light (note that even light has the dual charater of wave and particle).As they travel through the very thin gas of Interstellar space, some of the GCRs interact and emit gamma rays, which is how we know that they pass through the Milky Way and other galaxies.
    The elemental makeup of GCRs has been studied in detail , and is very similar to the composition of the Earth and solar system. but studies of the composition of the Isotopes GCRs may indicate the that the seed population for GCRs is neither the interstellar gas nor the shards of giant stars that went supernova. This is an area of current study.

  • Anomalous cosmic rays - Rays coming from the interstellar space.

  • Solar energetic particles - Associated with solar flares and other energetic solar events.

What are these Cosmic rays? Can it be Angels or something else sent down by God which govern and manage the universe on his behalf? Quran says angels are made up of light.They perfectly fit into the properties of 'Cosmic rays' and that they are silently carrying out their duty for ALLAH.

(Next article would be - Cosmic rays as messengers from the Black holes)

Tuesday, January 2, 2007

Bermuda Traingle

Bermuda traingle, also called the 'Devil's triangle' is one of the most mysterious and talked about places on earth.Struggling through the constant researchs and investigations, Bermuda traingle is able to protect its mysterious craze among its fans and haters.

Christopher Columbus was the first person to document something strange in the Triangle, reporting that he and his crew observed "strange dancing lights on the horizon". On another occasion they observed what was most likely a falling meteor. At another point he wrote in his log about bizarre compass bearings in the area.

The Bermuda triangle is a region of the Atlantic
Ocean between Bermuda, Miami, Florida, and San Juan, Puerto Rico.
It is infamous for the disappearance of ships and aircrafts passing through it.

Some researchers like Kusche,a researcher from Arizona state university and author of the book 'The Bermuda Triangle Mystery : Solved' states that Bermuda triangle is no more dangerous place than any other place over the ocean.According to him,the Bermuda traingle is a manufactured mystery.

The most prominent and active reseacher who strongly believes in and is supporting the Mystery of Bermuda traingle is Gian J Quasar.His Research is very interesting and marvellous.

Proposed Theories that try to explain disappearences at Bermuda Triangle-
1.Hurricanes and abnormal whether
2.Methane Hydrates 0 The researchers say that Methan Hydrate in anormous amounts is present in the triangle which when released causes the explosion of the ships.
3.Bermuda triangle is a place where the Compass points at the 'True North Pole' rather than the Magnetic North pole.The difference between the magnetic north pole is called compass variation.
4.Electromagnetic changes taking place at various spots in the traingle.
5.The Vortex kinesis - Vortex is a special gateway,if entered,a person will be landing into an unknown dimensions of space and time.
6.Some physio-chemical changes take place in the region at times thus transporting the vessles into 'Holes in the sky'
7.Abduction by extraterrestrial beings.

This is a never ending interensting topic.All the theories are very well discussed by Quasar in his website